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Masjid Agung Banten, Cagar Budaya di Kota Banten

03.01.2019
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Masjid Agung Banten diarsiteki oleh Raden Sepat dari Kerajaan Majapahit Masjid Agung Banten diarsiteki oleh Raden Sepat dari Kerajaan Majapahit (Foto: id.wikipedia.org)

Perpaduan budaya dapat disaksikan pada arsitektur Masjid Agung Banten. Pembangunan masjid yang dilaksanakan pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Hasanudin itu melibatkan 3 arsitek berbeda bangsa. Saat ini bangunan bersejarah itu masuk dalam kategori bangunan cagar budaya yang dilindungi.

Masjid Agung Banten terletak di Kecamatan Kasemen, daerah Banten Lama, tepatnya 10 km arah utara dari Kota Serang. Perjalanan ke tempat itu dapat ditempuh selama kurang lebih empat jam dari Jakarta melalui Tol Jakarta-Tangerang-Merak.

Konon, masjid itu diarsiteki oleh Raden Sepat dari Kerajaan Majapahit. Raden Sepat juga menjadi arsitek Masjid Agung Sang Cipta Rasa Kasepuhan Cirebon yang dikenal juga sebagai Masjid Agung Kasepuhan atau Masjid Agung Cirebon.

Selain Raden Sepat, seorang arsitek berdarah Tionghoa bernama Tjek Ban Tjut juga terlibat dalam pembangunan masjid itu. Atas bantuannya dalam pembangunan itu, Kesultanan Banten menganugerahi Tjek Ban Tjut dengan gelar Pangeran Adiguna.

Bangunan Masjid Agung Banten memiliki luas sekitar 1 hektare, sementara luas total kompleksnya kurang lebih 2 hektare. Arsitektur masjid tua ini memadukan unsur budaya Jawa Kuno dan Tiongkok. Perpaduan tersebut terlihat dari serambi yang lapang dan atap yang bertingkat. Atap masjid itu memiliki 5 tingkatan dengan bentuk yang menyerupai pagoda China.

Serambi utama masjid memiliki tiang berjumlah 24 buah. Pada serambi di sisi kiri masjid terdapat kompleks makam sultan dan keluarga kerajaan. Di kompleks makam tersebut terdapat makam Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa.

Bagian dalam masjid berbentuk bujur sangkar dengan tiang utama (saka guru) disangga dengan umpak yang terbuat dari batu andesit dengan motif buah labu. Terdapat mimbar yang terbuat dari kayu dengan tangga marmer. Di sisi depan dan samping terdapat pintu yang berjumlah 5 buah. Jumlah ini merujuk pada 5 rukun islam.

Di sisi timur masjid terdapat menara dari batu bata setinggi 24 meter dengan diameter 10 meter. Menara yang dibatasi dengan kolam itu dibangun oleh orang Belanda bernama Hendrik Lucaszoon Cardeel pada 1629 atas perintah Sultan Haji. Puncak menara dapat dicapai dengan menaiki 83 anak tangga. Lorong dalam menara tersebut hanya muat dilewati satu orang.

Selain sebagai tempat bilal mengumandangkan azan, pada masa peperangan, menara itu digunakan sebagai tempat penyimpanan senjata dan menara pengawas. Dari Masjid Agung Banten, laut terlihat karena jaraknya hanya 1,5 km.

Selain membangun menara, Hendrik Lucaszoon Cardeel juga membangun tiyamah yang terletak pada sisi selatan masjid. Bangunan ini digunakan sebagai tempat musyarawah dan kajian-kajian keagamaan.

Saat ini, Masjid Agung Banten menjadi kebanggaan masyarakat Banten. Cagar budaya ini tak pernah sepi dari pengunjung, khususnya orang-orang yang berziarah ke makam para sultan dan ulama Banten yang dikuburkan di Kompleks Masjid Agung Banten itu.

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Sumber: 1001indonesia

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